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La politique kabyle sous le Second Empire. Alors, avec Toutefois ce suffrage universel, inconnu des Kabyles, ne fonctionna pas. En on envisagea le remaniement complet des circonscriptions de la province d'Alger selon l'origine ethnique des tribus. A cette date, aucun grand chef ne subsistait dans la Kabylie de la province d'Alger 2.
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L'administration prit seulement l'habitude d'appe-. Et il fallut bien pour les litiges graves ou les questions opposant les villages entre eux constituer des tribunaux d'appel: Quelque 5. Aussi bien. Cela signifie qu'on y avait investi. Les anciennes coutumes se perdaient: Sauf sur le papier, ils ne purent y parvenir. Le commandement y fut attentif. On le vit bien en Archives de la Guerre: Dans le cas des Flissat oum El Lil il est permis d'en douter car il existe une lettre de s. II, p. Robin, G. Several translations and studies are also mentioned on p.
This possibility is strongly supported by an assertion featuring on page of the Balamand manuscript: The book offers strategies so Man acquires virtues: The manuscript has never been edited nor translated. Beside notes about its existence and discussions regarding the author11, this important event in the world history of the movements of thought has not received the attention it deserves. Having benefited from a Research Fellowship granted to me by the Mellon Foundation in order to study this important transfer of philosophical thinking, I am currently editing the Arabic text and preparing a Romanian and an English translation and commentary The Introduction, Acknowledgement and other accompanying texts of the Arabic versions of religious texts printed13 in Wallachia and Moldavia for the benefit of Christians in the Near East from the beginning of the 18th century.
Ottoman rulers had maintained since the 16th century a prohibition on the use of Arabic type, enforced by several fetvas Gdoura He was also a skillful engraver and printer: The short Arabic texts that open the above-mentioned volumes are important documentary sources as well for the foreign connections of Romanians as for the history of printing in the Near East. The variety of these documents is just one of the reasons for the interest they present for historians and researchers of various cultural fields including religion, philosophy, and the arts Albert Hourani noted in his Europe and the Middle East Other communities that find these texts very relevant to them have constantly striven to bring them to the attention of the scientific world.
In Poland Maria Kowalska, a specialist in Arabic mediaeval travel literature, focused on the fragments referring to the Cossack lands e. Although F.
Its interest is far from being merely regional, since it was included in the Internet Modern History Sourcebook The Russian scholar O. The Arab scholarly community periodically expresses its concern with the scientific methods of editing and cataloguing manuscripts: This accounts for the growing concern in the Arab countries for a correct training of students who embark upon the difficult task of editing: Twayne Publishers, p. Samir Khalil Samir. All their current projects focus on topics that would interest Romanian specialists in South-East European history: For a survey of the historical development of Arabic manuscript editing until today, the best source is Michael G.
Important insight could be gained from the extensive work of J. In Chapter IX. Textual Criticism and Editing IX. General studies of his fundamental The Arabic Manuscript Tradition. Likhachev in his Tekstologiia. Carter, non-Arabic surveys with wide echoes in scholarly circles include R. Rezvan, Giuseppe Scattolin, etc.
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Romanian researchers have the chance to join this international effort towards a better understanding of the Arab heritage by contributing specific expertise on texts relating to their cultural connections to the Christian Arabs in the Near East, an important fact of history for Romanians and Arabs alike. The first aim that such long-term dedication could pursue is the possibility to provide first-hand, accurate historical information to researchers of the history of Eastern Europe, the Near East, and the connections between the peoples living in these areas in the early modern era, and generally at the time when they were commonly subjected to Ottoman authority.
The texts I refer to can provide valuable data regarding all aspects of the life, culture, and spirituality of the inhabitants of these areas in the 17thth centuries, significant also in terms of the Muslim- Christian relationship under the rule of the Turks. Scientific publications even of one and the same document can be addressed to different readers In this respect, it is obvious that when the beneficiaries of a text are mostly interested in its content, the stress should fall on providing an accurate and reliable translation.
The text of the Arabic manuscript would then be published in facsimile, i. A comparative reading of several versions could also profitably lead to the explanation of obscure readings, or provide additions to the basic source. Writing about scientific texts astronomy and mathematics , David King Romanian Arabists that would devote their efforts to a scientific survey of the above-mentioned texts can provide a reliable reading and editing, enriched with relevant footnotes. Certainly, this is no easy 19 See Carter Akimushkin Undoubtedly, a reliable translation of the texts I am referring to requires appropriate competence insofar as the Arabic literary language is concerned, primarily the particular variety used by Christian Arab authors of the 17thth centuries.
Albert Hourani also supported translation as an educational tool: Specialists agree that Christian Arabs wrote their works in a particular variety of Arabic. I 20, it is sometimes included among the varieties of 20 Sauget Blau did not claim that his conclusions had a general bearing on all Christian Arabic literature since, as he himself made it clear from the beginning, they were drawn based only on very specific texts, i.
See also Clive Holes, Ch. Longman, p. University Press, p. Providing an edition of this important work that would reflect all language peculiarities is bound to bring more data for the study of this variety of Christian Arabic Familiar with the Greek-Orthodox tradition, Romanian Arabists can provide interpretations and comments regarding the similar problems of Romanians and Christian Arabs in adapting the language of Church life and religious education and culture to the needs of that particular period in history.
The language barrier between Romanians and Arabs was lifted precisely through the intervention of Greek, a language that was for a long time the cultured way of expressing Orthodox spirituality both in the Near East and in Romanian lands. The Syrian delegations managed to communicate easily with their Romanian hosts in Greek and they benefited largely from the Greek manuscripts and books they found in Romanian lands. The devotion that Romanian authorities, both secular and religious, dedicated to education in Greek is well illustrated by the number of schools and books printed in this language, which had become a guarantee for the wide-spread of culture and learning in the Balkans and the Near East.
Surveys of the language aspects of the text remain scarce: Pumpyan surveyed the Turkish loan words in the Safrat Pumpyan, , and the reflection of Russian and Ukrainian realities see Kilpatrick, It is therefore high time for Romanian Arabists to survey the whole body of this text from a linguistic point of view, providing significant data about the presence of Romanian and foreign words in the Arabic text, alterations that proper names underwent in Arabic script, and other language traits.
Comprehensive guides appeared much later: Without attempting to comment at length on these important sets of rules, I would mention that the historical context of their elaboration somewhat limits their applicability.
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Therefore most of the rules governing the translation and transcription of technical words, names of places, persons, families, dynasties, etc. Al-Munajjid started from this methodology, combining it with the rules applied in the collection Bibliotheca islamica by the Society of German Orientalists, and with his own scholarly experience.
He supported a modernization of the script: However, the result is a more readable version of the original, intended to allow comments on the contents more than on the linguistic forms present in the manuscript. Many of the articles listed in the above-mentioned Ch. Some authors devoted their attention to a particular corpus of Arabic manuscripts: When it comes to editing Christian Arabic manuscripts, the rules to be applied raise many questions.
I does not appear to have been fulfilled. However, his extensive research encouraged a large number of other contributions, mainly in the second half of the 20th century, that could help editors in establishing a set of criteria for editions of Arabic manuscripts. The Arabic writings of the 10thth centuries published in Patrologia orientalis ed.
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Graffin - F. His attitude towards the text is clearly stated from the very beginning: Efim A. The Warburg Institute. Unfortunately, no systematic corpus of methodological principles focusing exclusively on Christian Arabic texts of the late mediaeval period has yet been proposed Most textologists specialising in this literature rely on a personal system developed after a long experience of working hands-on with different texts.
Together with the 29 See Feodorov, Here are some of the most important problems that the editor and the translator have to deal with Establishing the structure of the edition Beside the standard monographic presentation of the author, his works, his position in contemporary literature, the edited writing, its sources and echoes, the introduction needs to include a codicological description of the manuscript, technical information concerning the script, editing principles that the author used, system of transliteration33, etc.
Greek, Turkish, Russian, Polish, etc. Philological observations can be blended into the general introduction whenever the purpose of the edition is not primarily philological. Some editors indicate here the consistent divergences that they found between language features of the edited text and the ones imposed by Classical Arabic norms see Ebied-Young, Choosing the manuscript s Two basic situations are common: It is worth noting that most copies include, towards the end, the name of the copyist together with a formula of thanksgiving for the satisfaction of having completed the work.
When both situations occur, the editor always prefers the autograph s: In a special section of the introduction, details on the manuscripts are to be provided: Variations are given in footnotes or, to leave enough space for the edited text, they may be recorded in an Appendix. The editors of the Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium. Scriptores Arabici CSCO, published since by the Catholic Universities of America and Louvain support the mirror-transcription of a single manuscript a method criticised by Samir, Discussions on graphic variations and the way to treat them can be found in Al-Munajjid, V-X; Blau, , passim.
Other interventions of the editor, such as the addition of diacritics to restore the distinction between emphatic consonants: However, this makes it impossible for language specialists to reveal particularities of writing as reflecting those of pronunciation, compelling them to resort to the manuscript even if there is a printed edition. This is practically the stage where the editor has to make a clear choice of his targeted public. To avoid the burdening of the edited text, all notes concerning the content may be attached to the adjoining translation of the text, reserving space in the Arabic part for language comments.
Whenever this is not the case, modern editors resort to a division of the text, restoring or improving the logical punctuation of chapters, sections, paragraphs, and sentences. Indices Christian Arabic texts are generally accompanied by indices of names, places, books mentioned, foreign words transferred to Arabic script, ecclesiastic vocabulary, concepts specific to a certain culture, etc. Al-Munajjid The above-mentioned Christian Arabic texts should be provided, beside a general index of names, with an index of Arabicized Romanian words, geographical terms, rigorously identified historical personalities, and followed, if possible, by an index of the other foreign words.
XXXI, fasc. Presenting this chapter of the dialogue between cultures means joining the scholarly enterprise currently co-ordinated by CEDRAC and Fr. His definition of this project VII is perfectly consistent with the expected Romanian contribution I hope to have outlined here: Belfour, F. The Travels of Macarius, Patriarch of Antioch: Blau, Joshua. Budapest Studis in Arabic, no. Cantemir, Dimitrie.
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